Ice in Fjords


Timelapse photography and measurements of ice and water properties are performed in several fjords throughout Nordland and Troms districts to improve understanding of the physical processes contributing to differing ice conditions in fjords.


The fjords dotting the coast of mainland Norway occupy a distinct place in the larger field of fjord oceanography. While many are located in the arctic based on latitude, they lack the influence of glaciers and the seasonal ice cover found in regions like Svalbard (Cottier et al., 2010). They also cannot be grouped with lower latitude fjords where conditions are warmer and sea ice consistently does not form (Inall & Gillibrand, 2010). While measurement campaigns have been undertaken to better understand the oceanic conditions specific to these regions, these works have not addressed sea ice formation (e.g. Cushman-Roisin, Asplin, & Svendsen, 1993; Eilertsen & Skarðhamar, 2006; Tverberg, Cushman-Roisin, & Svendsen, 1991; Svendsen, 1995; Mankettikkara, 2013; Skarðhamar et al 2018). The presence of ice in fjords can influence a number of physical processes however - it can disrupt the impact of wind and currents, slow the transfer of heat from air to ocean and reverse, lower the amount of solar radiation penetrating the water column. These physical impacts often have repercussions for the biological and geochemical processes within these areas as well. In addition, ice can act both as a tool and a disturbance to humans. For these reason, ice conditions in fjords is a topic of increasing interest as the arctic opens to more development and ship traffic.

Project contact: Megan O'Sadnick


Data from buoys (Facebook) in Beisfjorden (xlsx):
  • Buoy CL1-51, Beisfjord (16 Feb 2023, 04:00 UTC):
    • Logger battery: 4.9 V
    • Modem battery: 5.2 V
    • Air Temperature: 0.3 °C
    • Ice Surface Temperature: 888.0 °C
Beisfjorden map

Open map at Norgeskart

Fjord Ice Map

See for a general overview of where to find ice in fjords in Norway. Method and data were described by O'Sadnick et al. (2020),, and are available at


  1. O’Sadnick, M., Petrich, C.. (2023). Ice Conditions in Beisfjord, Norway from 2021 – 2023. In Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions. Glasgow, UK. (pdf)
  2. O’Sadnick, M., Petrich, C.. (2023). Examination of the ice reports from vessel traffic along the Norwegian coastline, 2014–2022. In Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions. Glasgow, UK. (pdf)
  3. O'Sadnick, M., Petrich, C., & Skarðhamar, J. (2023). Tracking changes in the fjord environment over a winter season using ice bulk salinity and δ18O. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 208, 103794.
  4. O'Sadnick, M. (2022). Ice in Norwegian subarctic fjords and coastal regions: An examination of ice formation, properties, and trends based on remote sensing and in situ data. Doctoral Dissertation, UiT The Arctic University of Norway.
  5. O'Sadnick, M., Petrich, C., Brekke, C., Skarðhamar, J., & Kleven, Ø. (2022). Ice conditions in northern Norwegian fjords: Observations and measurements from three winter seasons, 2017–2020. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 204, 103663.
  6. O'Sadnick, M., Petrich, C., Brekke, C., & Skarðhamar, J. (2020). Ice extent in sub-arctic fjords and coastal areas from 2001 to 2019 analyzed from MODIS imagery. Annals of Glaciology, 61(82), 210-226. doi:10.1017/aog.2020.34
  7. O'Sadnick, M., Petrich, C., Kleven, Ø., Skardhamar, J., & Brekke, C. (2020). Ice Formation in Norwegian Fjords–Findings from the 2018–2019 Field Season. In Proceedings of the 25th IAHR International Symposium on Ice. Trondheim, Norway. (link)
  8. Petrich, C., Sæther, I. V., Dang, N. P., Kleven, Ø., & O'Sadnick, M. (2020). A Note on Remote Temperature Measurements with DS18B20 Digital Sensors. In Proceedings of the 25th IAHR International Symposium on Ice. Trondheim, Norway. (link)
  9. Petrich, C., O’Sadnick, M., Kleven, Ø., & Sæther, I. (2019). A Low-Cost Coastal Buoy for Ice and Metocean Measurements. In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering Under Arctic Conditions. Delft, The Netherlands. (link)
  10. O'Sadnick, M. E., Petrich, C., Kleven, Ø., Brekke, C., Skarðhamar, J., & Dang, N. P. (2018). Observations of ice conditions and properties in Norwegian fjords during the winter of 2018 and implications for oil spill response. In Proceedings of the Forty-first AMOP Technical Seminar, Environment and Climate Change. Ottawa, ON, Canada. (link)
  11. Petrich, C., O'Sadnick, M. E., & Dale, L. (2017). Recent ice conditions in North-Norwegian Porsangerfjorden. In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions. Busan, Korea. (link)


Camera Beisfjord

Beisfjord, 20 Feb 2024

Camera Ramfjord/Sørbotn

Ramfjord/Sørbotn, 5 Feb 2024


Sentinel 1 Synthetic Aparture Radar (SAR) thumbnails of selected fjords

Gratangsbotn archive

Beisfjord archive

Nordkjosbotn archive

Ramfjord archive

Alta archive

Lavangen archive

Kattfjord archive

Repparfjord archive

Storfjord archive

Efjord archive

Porsangerfjord archive

Oslofjord archive

Kafjorden archive

Markeila archive

Breivikfjorden archive

Hasvik archive

Kineset archive

Fella archive

Bastafjord archive

Kvitneset archive

Saksfjorden archive

Mebotn archive

Sandnes archive

Ofjord archive

Stupa archive

Halden archive

Vestfjord archive

Moss archive

Drammensfjord archive

Kragero archive

Arendal archive

Sauda archive

Naeroyfjord archive

Beitstafjord archive

Namsos archive

Kirkenes archive

Odda archive

Farsund archive

Naroyfjorden archive

Elvegard archive

Skjomen archive

Sorskjomen archive

Asenfjord archive

SorfjordRana archive

Holandsfjorden archive

Narvik archive

Rombaken archive

Vinkfjord archive

Verlebukta archive

Svinesund1 archive

Svinesund2 archive

Kragero2 archive

Oslofjord2 archive

Oslohavn archive

Sandvika archive

Simanes archive

Davatluft archive

Strandbukta archive

Lafjord archive

Sarnesfjord archive

Vannfjord archive