Ice in Fjords


Timelapse photography and measurements of ice and water properties are performed in several fjords throughout Nordland and Troms districts to improve understanding of the physical processes contributing to differing ice conditions in fjords.


The fjords dotting the coast of mainland Norway occupy a distinct place in the larger field of fjord oceanography. While many are located in the arctic based on latitude, they lack the influence of glaciers and the seasonal ice cover found in regions like Svalbard (Cottier et al., 2010). They also cannot be grouped with lower latitude fjords where conditions are warmer and sea ice consistently does not form (Inall & Gillibrand, 2010). While measurement campaigns have been undertaken to better understand the oceanic conditions specific to these regions, these works have not addressed sea ice formation (e.g. Cushman-Roisin, Asplin, & Svendsen, 1993; Eilertsen & Skarðhamar, 2006; Tverberg, Cushman-Roisin, & Svendsen, 1991; Svendsen, 1995; Mankettikkara, 2013; Skarðhamar et al 2018). The presence of ice in fjords can influence a number of physical processes however - it can disrupt the impact of wind and currents, slow the transfer of heat from air to ocean and reverse, lower the amount of solar radiation penetrating the water column. These physical impacts often have repercussions for the biological and geochemical processes within these areas as well. In addition, ice can act both as a tool and a disturbance to humans. For these reason, ice conditions in fjords is a topic of increasing interest as the arctic opens to more development and ship traffic.

Project contact: Megan O'Sadnick


Data from buoys (Facebook) in Beisfjorden (xlsx):
  • Buoy CL1-06, near Smalneset (23 May 2019, 16:00 UTC):
    • Logger battery: 4.3 V
    • Modem battery: 6.3 V
    • Water temperature (1.5 m): 6.5 °C
  • Buoy CL1-30, near Lappneset (23 May 2019, 12:00 UTC):
    • Logger battery: 4.5 V
    • Modem battery: 6.4 V
    • Water temperature (1.5 m): 999.0 °C
Beisfjorden map

Open map at Norgeskart

Beisfjord Overview

Water temperature profiles at buoys in Beisfjorden during the last 5 days. Note that water depth (not shown) and probe lengths differ. Vertical lines mark predicted times of high tide (red) and low tide (blue) in Narvik. Dots indicate the relative position of the probe along the fjord. (complete season here)


Camera Beisfjord Overview

Beisfjord Overview, 15 Mar 2019

Camera Beisfjord

Beisfjord, 7 Jan 2019

Camera Ramfjord Overview

Ramfjord Overview, 20 May 2019

Camera Ramfjord Buoy

Ramfjord Buoy, 7 Apr 2019

Camera Storfjord Overview

Storfjord Overview, 12 May 2019

Camera Kattfjord Overview

Kattfjord Overview, 30 Apr 2019